K. Gopinath (काञ्ची गोपीनाथ)

Computer Science & Automation
Indian Institute of Science
INDIA 560 012

Convenor, Computer Architecture and Systems Lab (CASL) lab.
(080) 2293-2778 (direct) or, if not avlbl or non-functional,
(080) 2293-2368/86 (CSA dept office)
Fax: (080) 2360 2911

Email: gopi at iisc dot ac dot in
Kindly avoid proprietary formats (.doc, etc.) if possible; prefer ASCII/UNICODE देवनागरि, తెలుగు or ಕನ್ನಡ

Note that some spam filters drop msgs with mhtml and other attachments.

[FOR BE I, II, III year students/MCA/... ONLY: If you are a non-IISc student looking for a project, pl. be aware that CSA Dept has an official internship program during summer. Pl. do apply! ]

Brief Bio

K. Gopinath is a professor at Indian Institute of Science in the Computer Science and Automation Department. His research interests are primarily in the computer systems area (Operating Systems, Storage Systems, Systems Security and Systems Verification). He is a coauthor of a recently published book on "Resource Proportional Software Design for Emerging Systems," Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2020. He has been in the past an associate editor of IEEE Computer Society Letters and that of ACM Trans. on Storage.

His education has been at IIT-Madras (B.Tech'77), University of Wisconsin, Madison (MS'80) and Stanford University (PhD'88). He has also worked at AMD (Sunnyvale) ('80-'82), and as a PostDoc ('88-'89) at Stanford.

Research Interests

Operating Systems, Storage Systems, Systems Security, Verification

Recent PC Activity: ERC (ASPLOS'17,'18), PC (USENIX ATC 2016).

तेजस्विनावधीतमस्तु। May our studies be enlightening/invigorating! (our=> that of teacher and student)
मा विद्विषावहै। But may we not grow apart! (Why? Research is uncertain!)
(from Shaanti mantra in Katha and other Upanishads; also in Taittiriiya Upanishad, Brahmaanandavalli)

अम्बितमे नदीतमे देवितमे सरस्वति | अप्रशस्ता इव स्मसि प्रशस्तिमम्ब नस्कृधि || RV 2.41.16
O Sarasvati, best of mothers, greatest among rivers (of inspiration), most divine, we are but limited in our sayings! O Mother, give us self-expression!
(slightly modified from the translation of RL Kashyap)

परस्वादानेच्छाविरतमनसो वस्तु सुकवेः| सरस्वत्येवैषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || ४.१७||
(पर-स्वादान-इच्छा-विरत-मनसः वस्तु सुकवेः | सरस्वती एव एषा घटयति यथेष्टं भगवती || ४.१७||)
The Goddess of speech, Saraswati, herself will help the deserving and talented poets in procuring the ideas provided they shun plagiarism (ie. they are "devoid of the desire of eating other's tasty treats").

वादे वादे जायते तत्त्वबोधः |
Debate after debate produces true understanding.

No one has the right to speak in public before he has rehearsed what he wants to say two, three, and four times, and learned it; then he may speak... But if a man ... puts it down in writing, he should revise it a thousand times, if possible.
Maimonides: The Epistle on Martyrdom (c. 1165)

गीर्नः श्रेयः “words [are] prosperity”. The first chandravākya of Vararuchi in Katapayādi encoding for 12 degrees 3 minutes (used to represent longitudes of sun and moon)

आह्मां घरीं धन शब्दाचींच रत्‍नें । शब्दाचींच शस्‍त्रें यत्‍ने करूं ॥१॥
शब्दचि आमुच्या जिवाचें जीवन । शब्दें वांटूं धन जनलोकां ॥२॥
तुका ह्मणे पहा शब्दचि हा देव । शब्देंचि गौरव पूजा करूं ॥३॥
Words are the only jewels we possess in the house
Words, with our own efforts, are our only protection
Words are the only sustenance of our lives
Words are the only wealth we distribute among people
Says Tuka: See! the Words are verily the Shining Ones ("God")!
To Words respectfully offer puujaa! (Sant Tukaaraam)

Albert Camus: "It is better for the intellectual [teacher?] not to talk all the time. It would keep him from thinking."

Hindley: "typing algorithm mentioned ... has a long history; ... Curry... Hindley... Milner... J.H. Morris... Carew Meredith... Tarski...
There must be a moral to this story of continual re-discovery; perhaps someone along the line should have learned to read. Or someone else learn to write."

My Academic Links


Pl. see below for selected publications with downloadable pdf/ps files.

My NPTEL video course on Storage Systems.

See also Youtube playlist link to all the videos from the ICPR Conference on S&T in the Indic Tradition, Feb 3-6, 2017

Selected Recent Publications

(book) Suparna Bhattacharya, Kanchi Gopinath, Doug Voigt, "Resource Proportional Software Design for Emerging Systems," Chapman and Hall/CRC, Feb 28, 2020

Preview (pdf)

Ashish Panwar, Reto Achermann, Arkaprava Basu, Abhishek Bhattacharjee, K. Gopinath, Jayneel Gandhi, "Fast Local Page-Tables for Virtualized NUMA Servers with vMitosis," ASPLOS 2021.

Arpith K, K. Gopinath, "Need for a Deeper Cross-Layer Optimization for Dense NAND SSD to Improve Read Performance of Big Data Applications: A Case for Melded Pages," HotStorage'20, Boston.

Ashish Panwar, Sorav Bansal, K. Gopinath, "HawkEye: Efficient Fine-grained OS Support for Huge Pages," ASPLOS 2019

A. Panwar, A. Prasad, K. Gopinath, "Making Huge Pages Actually Useful," ASPLOS 2018

Ajinkya Rajput and K. Gopinath, "Analysis of Newer Aadhaar Privacy Models," ICISS'18.

Aravinda Prasad, K. Gopinath, "A Frugal Approach to Reduce RCU Grace Period Overhead," Eurosys 2018

Ajinkya Rajput and K. Gopinath, "Towards a more secure Aadhaar," ICISS 2017 (BEST PAPER award). pdf See also talk (2 parts): part1, part2

Aravinda Prasad, K. Gopinath, Paul E. McKenney, "The RCU-Reader Preemption Problem in VMs," USENIX ATC 2017. pdf

Aravinda Prasad, K. Gopinath, "Prudent Memory Reclamation in Procrastination based Synchronization," ASPLOS 2016. pdf

Ashish Panwar, Naman Patel, K. Gopinath, "A Case for Protecting Huge Pages from the Kernel," ApSys 2016 pdf

Lan Zhou, Vijay Varadharajan, K. Gopinath, ``A Secure Role-based Cloud Storage System for Encrypted Patient Centric Health Records,'' Computer Journal, 2016 pdf

Ashish Panwar and Kanchi Gopinath, "Improving Power and Memory-Hotplug with a Migration Friendly Buddy Allocator," HiPC 2015.pdf

Suparna Bhattacharya, K. Gopinath, Mangala Gowri Nanda, "Combining Concern Input with Program Analysis for Bloat Detection," OOPSLA 2013. pdf

Mrinal Das, Suparna Bhattacharya, Chiranjib Bhattacharyya, Gopinath K, "Subtle Topic Models and Discovering Subtly Manifested Software Concerns Automatically," ICML 2013 pdf

Suparna Bhattacharya, Karthick Rajamani, K. Gopinath, Manish Gupta, "Does Lean Imply Green? A Study of Power-Performance Implications of Java Runtime Bloat," SIGMETRICS, Jun 2012 pdf

Pankaj Pipada, Achintya Kundu, K. Gopinath, Chiranjib Bhattacharyya, Sai Susarla, Nagesh P. C., "LoadIQ: Online learning to label program phases using storage traces," HotStorage Jun 2012 pdf

Suparna Bhattacharya, K. Gopinath, Karthick Rajamani, and Manish Gupta, "Software Bloat and Wasted Joules: Is Modularity a Hurdle to Green Software," IEEE Computer, Sep'2011 pdf

Suparna Bhattacharya, Karthick Rajamani, K. Gopinath, Manish Gupta, "The Interplay of Software Bloat, Hardware Energy Proportionality and System Bottlenecks," HotPower 2011 pdf

Suparna Bhattacharya, K. Gopinath, "Virtually Cool Ternary Content Addressable Memory," HotOS 2011 pdf

Lawrence L. You, Kristal T. Pollack, Darrell D.E. Long, K. Gopinath, "PRESIDIO: A Framework for Efficient Archival Data Storage," ACM Transactions on Storage, Vol 7,2, Jul 2011. pdf

Suparna Bhattacharya, Mangala Gowri Nanda, K. Gopinath, Manish Gupta. "Reuse, recyle to debloat software," ECOOP 2011. pdf

Neeraja J. Yadwadkar, Chiranjib Bhattacharyya, K. Gopinath, Thirumale Niranjan, Sai Susarla, "Discovery of Application Workloads from Network File Traces," 8th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST '10), Feb 2010. pdf

K. Gopinath, Jon Elerath, Darrell Long, "Reliability Modelling of Disk Subsystems with Probabilistic Model Checking," presented at Dagstuhl Seminar on "Quantative and Qualitative Analysis of Network Protocols", Jan 2010. Also, Technical Report UCSC-SSRC-09-05, May 2009. pdf More updated work in MSc thesis (Prasenjit: https://drona.csa.iisc.ac.in/~gopi/docs/prasenjit-MSc.pdf). See also, "Are Markov Models Effective for Storage Reliability Modelling?" CoRR abs/1503.07931 (2015).

K. Gopinath, "Static Program Analysis for Security," in The Compiler Design Handbook: Optimizations and Machine Code Generation, CRC Press, 2007. (draft)pdf [Book Chapter]

V H Gupta, K. Gopinath, "G$^2_{its}$VSR: An Information Theoretic Secure Verifiable Secret Redistribution Protocol for Long-term Archival Storage," Fourth International IEEE Security In Storage Workshop (SISW 2007), San Diego, CA Sep 27, 2007. pdf

V Sriram, Ganesh Narayan, K Gopinath, "SAFIUS - A secure and accountable filesystem over untrusted storage," Fourth International IEEE Security In Storage Workshop (SISW 2007), San Diego, CA Sep 27, 2007. pdf

Sandhya G, K. Gopinath, "Design and Analysis of Rate Aware Ad Hoc 802.11 Networks," International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking (ICDCN 2006), Guwahati, Dec'06, LNCS4308 pdf

KN Gopinath, Pravin Bhagwat, K. Gopinath, "An Empirical Analysis of Heterogeneity in IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol Implementations and its Implications," The First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation and CHaracterization (WiNTECH 2006), ACM MobiCom 2006, Los Angeles, Sep'2006. pdf

M C Dharmadeep, K. Gopinath, "Proactive leader election in Asynchronous Shared Memory systems," ATVA (Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis), Oct 2006, Beijing, LNCS4218 pdf

Rahul Simha, K. Gopinath, "Insurable Storage Services: Creating a Marketplace for Long-Term Document Archival," International Conference on Computational Science (3) 2006, Reading, UK. pdf

Amitabha Roy, K. Gopinath, "Improved Probabilistic Models for 802.11 Protocol Verification," Computer Aided Verification (CAV) 2005, Edinburgh, LNCS 3576.pdf

A Few Selected Older Publications

Niranjan K. Boora, Chiranjib Bhattacharyya, K. Gopinath, "Efficient Algorithms for Intrusion detection," ICDCIT 2004, LNCS3347. pdf

Matti Luukkainen, Vivek K. Shanbhag, K. Gopinath, "Verifying a UMTS protocol using Spin and EASN," Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, Vol 118, Feb 2005. Also in Software Verification and Validation Workshop, Mumbai, Dec 2003. pdf

K. Gopinath, "Register Allocation," in The Compiler Design Handbook: Optimizations and Machine Code Generation, CRC Press, 2002. [Book Chapter] (draft) ps

Neeraj Jaggi, K. Gopinath, ``Verification of Leader Election Algorithm in Timed Asynchronous Systems,'' FST&TCS, Bangalore, Dec'01. LNCS 2245. ps

Suresh Babu, K. Gopinath, ``A Persistent Snapshot Device Driver for Linux,'' 2001 Annual Linux Showcase/Usenix, Oakland, CA Nov 6-10, 2001. ps

Venkatesh P., K. Gopinath, ``The Design, Implementation and Framework for a Linux based Temperature Sensitive Storage,'' 2001 Annual Linux Showcase/Usenix, Oakland, CA Nov 6-10, 2001. ps

Vivek K. Shanbhag, K. Gopinath, Markku Turunen, Ari Ahtiainen, Matti Luukkainen, `` EASN: Integrating ASN.1 and Model Checking,'' 13th Conference on Computer Aided Verification CAV'01, July 18-23, 2001 Paris, France LNCS 2102. ps

Mansoor Ali Khan, K. Gopinath, ``Predictable Management of System Resources for Linux,'' 26th USENIX/FREENIX Annual Technical Conf, Boston, Jun'01. ps

Vivek K. Shanbhag and K. Gopinath, ``A SPIN-based Model Checker for Telecommunication Protocols,'' 8th International SPIN Workshop on Model Checking of Software (SPIN'2001), May 19-20, 2001, Toronto, Canada LNCS 2057. draft ps

K. Gopinath, Nitin Muppalaneni, N.Suresh Kumar, Pankaj Risbood, ``A 3-tier RAID Storage System with RAID1, RAID5 and compressed RAID5 for Linux,'' 25th USENIX/FREENIX Annual Technical Conf, San Diego, Jun'00 (USENIX2000). ps

K. Gopinath, M.K.Krishna Narasimhan, B.H.Lim, Anant Agarwal,``Performance Evaluation of Switch-Blocking on Multi-threaded Architectures, '' International Conference on Parallel Processing, Chicago, Aug '94. (problematic) pdf

K. Gopinath and John L. Hennessy, ``Copy Elimination in Functional Languages," Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL), Austin, Texas, Jan '89. pdf

([outdated!] See here for a more Complete Bio and Publication List but this is not being kept current for atleast a decade!)

Selected recent MSc/PhD Theses of students who have worked with me:
Suparna Bhattacharya PhD thesis: A Systems Perspective of Software Runtime Bloat – Origin, Mitigation and Power-Performance Implications
Naman Patel MSc thesis: A Case for Protecting Huge Pages from the Kernel
Ashish Panwar MSc thesis: An Allocation Framework for Optimizing Memory Power Consumption and Controlling Fragmentation
Pankaj Pipada MSc thesis: Studies in Autonomic Management of Storage Systems
Kamala R. MSc thesis: MIST: MIgrate the Storage Too
Prasenjit Karmakar MSc Thesis: Reliability Modelling of Whole RAID Storage Subsystems
Amarnath B S MSc thesis: Scalable quota management for high performance computing
Srimuguntan MSc thesis: Efficient usage of Flash memories in high performance scenarios
R. Kameshwari PhD Thesis: Predictive Modeling for Migration within a Secondary Storage Level
M. Dharmadeep MSc Thesis: Optimizations In Storage Area Networks And Direct Attached Storage
L. Gautam MSc Thesis: Fault Tolerant Locking for Shared Disk Filesystems
K. Hariprasad Time Management in Partitioned Systems
Manish Kumar C: MSc thesis Recovery from DoS Attacks in MIPv6: Modelling and Validation
M. Raghu Effective Optimization Techniques for a Parallel File System
N. Ganesh iSAN - An Intelligent Storage Area Network
L.A.Prashanth OFDM-MAC algorithms and their impact on TCP performance in next generation mobile networks
V. Sriram MSc thesis: SAFIUS - A Secure Accountable Filesystem over Untrusted Storage
Nitin Muppalaneni: MSc thesis A Multi-tier RAID Storage System with RAID1 and RAID5
Nandakumar K S: Combining Conditional Constant Propagation and Interprocedural Alias Analysis
K.S.Raghunath: MSc thesis Restructuring a Legacy Application Through CORBA
V.Vivekanand: MSc thesis Characterizing the Vulnerability of Parallelism to Resource Constraints

Other Interests

See Call For Papers
Proceedings (scanned)
Paper in J of Info Tech for Development

President of Free Software Movement of Karnataka (2010-2016).

Some talks: given at
National Conf on Free SW 2010 on "Free SW and its manifestations",
Open Day at CSA/IISc on "JC Bose and Free Knowledge Systems".
Transcript (edited) of an interview on IPR, Net neutrality, etc on a FM station

See a brief snippet on security issues.

न चोरहार्यं न च राजहार्यं न भ्रातॄभाज्यं न च भारकारि |
व्यये कॄते वर्धत एव नित्यं विद्याधनं सर्वधनप्रधानं ||
It cannot be stolen by thieves, nor can it be taken away by kings. It need not be divided among brothers and it does not cause a load on your shoulders. If spent, it indeed always keeps growing. The wealth of knowledge is the most superior wealth of all!

सत्यं ब्रुयात् प्रियम् ब्रुयान्नब्रुयात् सत्यमप्रियम् |
प्रियम् च नानॄतम् ब्रुयादेष: धर्म: सनातन: ||
Speak truth. Speak what is pleasant to others. Don't speak truth that is unpleasant ("harmful"). Even if pleasant, don't speak what is false. This is Dharma for all time.

एकं शास्त्रमधीयानो न गच्छेच्छास्त्रनिर्णयम् |
If you know/study only one subject, you cannot go around saying anything authoritatively even in that subject! ((modified?) from Sushruta 4.7). Original version(s):
एकं शास्त्रमधीयानो न विद्याच्छास्त्रनिश्चयम् | (or लक्षणम्)
तस्माद्बहुश्रुतः शास्त्रं विजानीयाच्चिकित्सकः ||
"One who studies only one shaastra wouldn't know even its meaning / import / essence.
Hence a physician should study many disciplines (बहु-श्रुतः) in order to thoroughly understand (विजानीयात्) his shaastra".
Justification in an earlier shloka:
न ह्येकस्मिन् शास्त्रे शक्यः सर्वशास्त्राणामवरोधः कर्तुम्
It is not possible in one shaastra to prevent the influence of all other shaastras. In other words, they are so inter-connected that it is impossible to elucidate each shaastra's subject matter in isolation from others. In this particular case, he is referring to the need to study Nyaaya (logic), mImAmsa (interpretation), Vyakarana (linguistics), jyotisha (mathematics and astronomy), Ayurveda etc

आचार्यात् पादमादत्ते From guru, 1/4th
पादं शिष्यः स्वमेधया । By one's own intelligence/effort, another 1/4th
पादं स ब्रह्मचारिभ्यः Another 1/4th from other students
पादं कालक्रमेण च ।। Rest 1/4th by experience and passage of time!
कइव नहि गुरु: लोकवृत्तेपि भूमन्?
Is there anything in this world that cannot be a teacher?

सुखार्थी वा त्यजेत विद्यां विद्यार्थी वा त्यजेत सुखं |
सु:खार्थिनो कुतो विद्या कुतो विद्यार्थिनः सुखं ||
If desirious of an easy life, give up studies.
If desirious of learning, give up an easy life.
Where is learning in a pleasure seeker and where is pleasure for a seeker of learning?

उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत,
क्षुरासन्न धारा निशिता दुरत्यद्दुर्गम पथ: तत् कवयो वदन्ति |
Arise! Awake! Approach the great and learn.
Like the sharp edge of a razor is that path,
so the wise say−hard to tread and difficult to cross.

युक्तियुक्तं वचो ग्राह्यं न ग्राह्यं गुरुगौरवात्।
सर्वशास्त्ररहस्यं तद् याज्ञवल्क्येन भाषितम् ॥ याज्ञवल्क्यशिक्षा, २३२ ॥
Whatever is consistent with right reasoning should be accepted but not because of respect for the teacher.
As expounded by Yagnavalkya, this is the secret of all Shastra-s.
युक्तियुक्तं वचो ग्राह्यं बालादपि शुकादपि ।
युक्तिहीनं वचस्त्याज्यं वृद्धादपि शुकादपि ॥
Whatever is consistent with right reasoning should be accepted, even though it comes from a boy or even from a parrot ("shuka"); and whatever is inconsistent therewith ought to be rejected, although emanating from an old man or even from the great sage Sri Shuka (son of Vyaasa) himself. (Note pun on Shuka)
(another version)
युक्तियुक्तं वचो ग्राह्यं बालादपि शुकादपि ।
अयुक्तमपि न ग्राह्यं साक्षादपि बृहस्पतेः ॥
Words conjoined with reason should be accepted whether from a child or from a parrot.
Words devoid of reason should not be grasped, even if it comes from Śrī Bṛhaspati (Guru of the Gods) himself.

“Verily, there is no limit to the scope of the science of life. (na…)
Therefore, without being careless but constantly striving, let us proceed. (tasmat…)
This work of being continually healthy, even from others it is fit to be learned without jealousy. (pare…)
In fact, the whole world is the teacher for the wise and enemy for the foolish (krtsno..)
Therefore, the wise, after careful examination, learn even from rivals (athaha…)
about excellence, fame, long life, health, and of world affairs by listening to their words of instruction and assimilating them."
Charaka Samhita 8.14

तस्माद्धर्मप्रधानेन भवितव्यं यतात्मना ।
तथा च सर्वभूतेषु वर्तितव्यं यथात्मनि ॥

"Hence, (keeping these in mind), by self-control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself." Shaanti Parva, 167:9, MBh.

अनिर्वेदम् च दाक्ष्यम् च मनसः च अपराजयम् |
कार्य सिद्धि कराणि आहुः तस्मात् एतत् ब्रवीमि अहम् || रामायण (किष्किन्धा काण्ड) ४.४९.६
"Relentlessness, skill in doing one's job and not losing heart in the face of difficulties – these are the qualities which enable one to achieve goals. Therefore I say all this" Ram. 4.49.6

One whose knowledge is confined to books and whose wealth is in the possession of others can use neither knowledge nor wealth when the need for them arises.

को अ॒द्धा वे॑द॒ क इ॒ह प्र वो॑च॒त्कुत॒ आजा॑ता॒ कुत॑ इ॒यं विसृ॑ष्टिः ।
अ॒र्वाग्दे॒वा अ॒स्य वि॒सर्ज॑ने॒नाथा॒ को वे॑द॒ यत॑ आब॒भूव॑ ||
Who really knows? Who can presume to tell it?
Whence was it born? Whence issued this creation?
Even the Gods came after its emergence.
Then who can tell from whence it came to be?

यं विसृ॑ष्टि॒र्यत॑ आब॒भूव॒ यदि॑ वा द॒धे यदि॑ वा॒ न ।
यो अ॒स्याध्य॑क्षः पर॒मे व्यो॑म॒न्त्सो अ॒ङ्ग वे॑द॒ यदि॑ वा॒ न वेद॑ ||
That out of which creation has arisen,
whether it held it firm or it did not,
He who surveys it in the highest heaven,
He surely knows - or maybe He does not!
------ The Hymn of Creation, Rig Veda.

जलाद्रक्षेत्तैलाद्रक्षेद्रक्षेच्छिथिलबन्धनात् |
मूर्खहस्ते न मां दद्यादिति वदति पुस्तकम् ||
"Protect me from water, protect me from oil and from loose binding. And do not give me into the hand of a fool, thus says the manuscript"

video proceedings of ICPR Conference on S&T in the Indic Tradition, Feb 3-6, 2017
An Editor ("associate editor") of IEEE Letters of the Computer Society.